May 19, 1986
South African commandos strike alleged ANC "operational centers" in Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zambia. Botha attempts to justify attacks as legitimate response to terrorism, similar to recent US air raid on Libya. Reagan administration lodges formal protest, recalls its military attache from Pretoria, expels South Africa's military representative, but refuses to impose additional economic sanctions. (Washington Post, 20 May 1986, A1, A23; 21 May 1986, A1; Baker 42)
In the dozens of countries where the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank have imposed structural adjustment programs (SAPs), the people who have seen deterioration in their standards of living, reduced access to public services, devastated environments, and plummeting employment prospects have not been passive. The pages of newspapers, magazines, and academic journals (those that can survive in depressed economies) have been filled with damning analysis of structural adjustment. More important, people have been organizing to combat the pillaging of their lands and livelihoods. This organizing has resulted in mass movements and protests on every continent, but they are not often reported on in the mainstream press.
Food price riots in the northern copper mining district in response to a SAP announced in December 1986 eventually led to program's suspension.
1991.11.02 In Zambia Pres. Kaunda was voted out of office. Pres. Frederick Chiluba and his Movement for Multi-Party Democracy won in the first multi-party elections.
Published: April 1, 1986
A Mozambican Air Force plane crashed and burst into flames on takeoff, killing 44 people, Mozambique's official press agency reported today. The dead included a founder of the rebel movement that successfully fought Portuguese colonial rule.
The crash, the worst such disaster in Mozambique's history, occurred Sunday at the Indian Ocean town of Pemba, the Mozambican News Agency said. Five people survived, but all were seriously injured, the agency said.
The agency, quoting a Government statement, said the dead included Maria Chipande, wife of Defense Minister Gen. Alberto Chipande and a founder of the Mozambique Liberation Front. The guerrilla movement fought Portuguese rule for a decade and became Frelimo, the ruling party, after Mozambique became independent in 1975.
The agency said the cause of the crash appeared to be engine trouble. The plane, a Soviet-made Antonov 26, crashed and burned a few hundred yards from the end of the runway in Pemba, it said.
(New York Times
President Samora M. Machel, leader of Mozambique since it won independence from Portugal in 1975, was killed Sunday night in a plane crash in South Africa, the Pretoria Government announced today. The cause of the crash, on a flight from Lusaka, Zambia, to Maputo, Mozambique, was not known. The Mozambican authorities, who withheld a formal announcement while they debated the succession and other issues, confirmed Mr. Machel's death about 24 hours after the crash. An Anti-Apartheid Figure The 53...)